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两高律师仝雪莹实例谈:商业行为的合同设计和谈判

[社会] 时间:2019-05-09 22:49 来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
  原文系《实例谈:产品+市场浅度合作类商业行为的合同架构及知识产权保护条款设计和谈判中应关注的因素解析》,首发于智合网站。现将其部分改编如下:

  声明:鉴于保密义务,本文中涉及客户商业信息的部分已被隐化处理或删减,本文仅专注于探讨法律相关问题。

  一家企业选择进入一个新市场(新地域或新行业)无非是通过贸易、投资、契约合作等方式。契约合作是一种很灵活的方式,即:通过契约与目标市场的企业形成非股权的合作关系,实践中有许可证进入模式、特许经营进入模式、研发合作进入模式、生产合作进入模式、营销合作进入模式、管理合作进入模式、工程承包进入模式等。契约合作方式灵活多样,在商务模式上的可创造性空间很大,但常规性的法律条款的可拓展性是有限的。本文试图通过作者参与谈判的合同实例对某一常见类别的商业行为中的合同整体架构和知识产权保护条款给出一个较为通用的文本范例。

  合同实例背景简介:中国某大型招标项目,项目招标方要求投标主体必须是中国公司。海外A公司具有产品优势,为进入中国市场,与具有本地市场优势的中国B公司合作,共同参与投标该大型项目。A公司负责提供产品(包含软件及硬件)及服务,B公司负责本国的市场及营销。



  

  (商业行为模式图)

  这一类商业行为很常见。一方拥有成熟的产品,具有产品优势,另一方在本地域或本行业内深耕多年,具有市场优势。双方通过契约达成试探性的浅度合作。所谓“浅度”是指这类合作一般不涉及股权、不涉及知识产权转让等更紧密更深层次的合作方式。所谓“试探性”是指这类合作为双方后续是否可以进入深度合作提供了非常有效的近距离探索性试验。这一类合作模式能够较快速地在新的市场中有效整合双方的优势资源达到双赢,同时,在合作不理想的情况下也可以较快速较容易地解除合作关系。本文作者将这一类商业行为简称为“产品+市场浅度合作类商业行为”。这一类商业行为的最大的优势在于高效率和低成本,即:双方在较短时间内就可能达成能够成功进入新市场的有效合作契约,而不用花费大量时间、精力和金钱进行前期的尽调和评估工作。本文作者选用的以下合同实例的整体架构及文本对这一类商业行为的合同设计或谈判具有一定的实用参考价值。

  以下就从该合同实例的整体架构和主要的知识产权保护条款方面分别解析这一类商业行为中在合同设计或谈判中应注意的各项因素。

  一、关于合同整体架构

  【律师解析】

  一个大型项目完整的合同文本的设计或谈判通常都需要技术、商务及法律三类专业人士的团队合作。也就是说,合同文本通常包括技术条款、商务条款以及法律条款。当然,各类条款并非孤立存在,在某些条款中会出现交叉混同,既要考虑技术和商务层面的因素,也要考虑如何从法律规定层面进行设计或谈判才能更有效地保护己方的权益,我们将此类条款称为综合条款。

  以下述合同实例来具体说明各类条款:


  



  以下合同架构的设计很全面,基本涵盖了此类项目所涉及的各项问题。根据不同的项目和不同的商务需求,可以在此基础上进行微调或删减以达成所需要的合同架构。

  【合同架构中英文实例】



  

  



  二、关于授权条款

  【律师解析】

  有关授权的内容、性质及范围等约定得越具体越好,否则非常容易引起歧义。由于授权释义不明晰而导致的诉讼纠纷在实践中很常见。

  该条款是合同的基础性关键条款,在合同设计或谈判时应充分考虑如下因素:


  




  【合同条款中英文实例】

  第二条 授权

  (1)A公司在XX项目中授予B公司非独占的、不可转让的权利,该权利是将协议产品和B公司品牌一体化,并在中国向XX公司(“最终用户”)销售。B公司接受上述根据本协议规定的条款和条件做出的授权,协议产品应符合规范。A公司同意在XX项目中在独家合作区域除B公司外不再授权其他设备生产商和/或销售商销售XX产品的业务。B公司同意在XX项目中B公司在独家合作区域除销售A公司的XX产品外,不再进行销售其他设备生产商和/或销售商的XX产品。为避免歧义,双方理解,B公司将继续进行XX设备的研发。

  (2)如果中国出现除最终用户以外的其他用户(“其他用户”),双方将另行协商。

  ARTICLE 2. APPOINTMENT

  (1) Company A grants to Company B thenon-exclusive, non-transferable right to incorporate the Products into CompanyB’s product lineup with Company B’s brand name and to distribute the Productsto XX in the PRC ("End User") in connection with End User's XXProject. Company B accepts the saidappointment on the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement. TheProducts shall conform to the Specifications attached hereto. Company A agreesthat The Products will not appoint other equipment manufacturers and/or sellersthan Company B in the Exclusive Cooperation Area to sell the Products to theEnd Users in connection with End User's XX Project. Company B agrees that CompanyB will not sell the Products which are manufactured by equipment manufacturers,other than those manufactured by Company A, in the Exclusive Cooperation Area inconnection with End User's XX Project.

  (2) If other end users ("OtherEnd Users") than the End User are emerging in the PRC, a discussion willbe arranged between the Parties.

  三、关于商标条款

  【律师解析】

  有关商标的问题是一个企业进入新市场首先会碰到的知识产权问题,在合同设计或谈判时应充分考虑如下因素:


  



  【合同条款中英文实例】

  第三条 铭牌

  在协议有效期内,B公司应尽力在中国推广和销售协议产品,B公司与A公司将共同决定协议产品的贴牌范围。除附件C中的规定外,B公司应负责协议产品的品牌、标识、广告或推广。没有A公司事先书面同意,B公司不得使用与A公司的品牌、标识、广告、文档或推广相近似的易于混淆的品牌、标识、广告、文档或推广。如果B公司从事与协议产品直接竞争的产品的生产或营销,应事先书面通知A公司。

  ARTICLE 3. BRANDING

  CompanyB shall exert all reasonable efforts to market and promote the sale ofProducts throughout the PRC, for the duration of this Agreement. Company B and Company Ashall jointly determine the extent to which labeling of Products is required.Except as set forth in Exhibit C, Company Bshall be responsible for branding, labeling, advertising and promotingProducts. Company B shall not use branding,labeling, advertising, promotions or documentation which are confusinglysimilar to Company A’s branding, labeling,advertising, promotions or documentation without prior written consent of Company A. Company Bshall provide Company A with written noticebefore Company B manufactures or markets aproduct which is directly competitive with Products.

  第十六条 商标、专利及其它许可证

  (1) 除在本协议期间内,允许B公司根据本协议并经A公司同意仅在合理必要范围内可为销售及宣传协议产品的目的使用商标外,本协议内容不应理解为A公司转让或授予商号、标识、及商标的许可使用权 (“商标”),包括A公司拥有或因与协议产品有关而可能拥有的专利、版权、和/或设计。为此目的,A公司授予B公司无偿的、非独占的、有限的使用A公司商标的许可证,条件是,B公司遵从附件D所示的A公司统一的商标与标识使用指南中的要求。本协议一经终止或期满,B公司使用A公司商标的许可权应终止。除非本协议另有规定,B公司不得消除或修改或允许消除或修改任何商标或记号,专有标识、标签,或A公司或其代理人置于协议产品或相关文书上的其他标识。

  (2) B公司承认A公司系商标的唯一所有人,包括所有非英文相应标识及变异,及商标的所有翻译,无论A公司的商标是否在中国境内注册。B公司使用商标并不能使其对商标本身享有任何权利或利益。B公司对A公司的商标无任何请求权或权利。B公司同意不注册或不试图在任何区域内注册A公司的商标,除非事先得到A公司书面许可。A公司同意不注册或不试图在任何区域内注册B公司的商标,除非事先得到B公司书面许可。

  (3) 为保证适当使用与保护A公司的商标,B公司同意,若其从A公司或A公司子公司或A公司授权分销商以外的渠道购买或被邀约购买的协议产品带有A公司的商标或其他标识,它将以书面形式通知A公司。

  ARTICLE 16. TRADEMARK,PATENTS AND OTHER LICENSES

  (1) Nothing herein contained shall be construed asthe transfer or grant of license of any trade names, logos, and trademarks(collectively, “Trademarks”), patents, copyrights, and/or designs which CompanyA owns or may own in connection with the Product except that during the term ofthis Agreement, Company B may use such Trademarks only to the extent reasonablynecessary for the use, sale and advertisement of the Products in accordancewith this Agreement, and as reasonably agreed to by Company A. For this purpose, Company A grants Company Ba non-exclusive, royalty-free, limited license to use Company A’s Trademarks,provided that Company B conforms to the requirements of Company A’s standard Trademark and Logo Usage Guide as setforth in Exhibit D. Upon termination or expiration of this Agreement, Company B’sprivilege to use the Trademarks shall expire, and Company B shall immediatelydiscontinue the active use of the same in connection with any businessconducted by Company B. Except as specifically provided herein, Company B willnot make or permit the removal or modification of any Trademarks or tags,proprietary notices, labels, or other identifying marks placed by Company A orits agents on the Products or associated literature.

  (2) Company B acknowledges that Company A is andshall remain the exclusive owner of the Trademarks, including all non-Englishequivalents and variations, and all transliterations of the Trademarks,regardless of whether any or all of the Trademarks are registered in the PRC,and the use of the Trademarks by Company B does not convey to Company B anyright, title or interest in or to the Trademarks. Company B has no claim orright in the Trademarks. Company B agrees that it will not register, norattempt to register any Trademark in any jurisdiction unless expressly approvedin writing by Company A in advance. Company A agrees that it will not register,nor attempt to register any of Company B's trademarks in any jurisdictionunless expressly approved in writing by Company B in advance.

  (3) In order to assure proper use and protection ofCompany A’s Trademarks, Company B agrees to inform Company A in writing if CompanyB purchases, or is offered for purchase, any Products with a Trademark or othermark of Company A from a source other than Company A, its subsidiaries, or anauthorized Company A distributor.

  四、关于版权条款

  【律师解析】

  在本合同所涉及的协议产品中,软件是产品的重要组成部分。因此,合同中设计了专门的条款进行阐述。该合同中的软件使用权和相关文档版权的条款是比较通用化的规定,在同类型的商业行为中可以直接参考借鉴。

  有关软件使用权的问题,在合同设计或谈判时应充分考虑如下因素:


  




  有关文档版权的问题,在合同设计或谈判时应充分考虑如下因素:


  



  【合同条款中英文实例】

  第十条 软件使用权

  (1) 除非本协议有相反规定,B公司或其客户对本协议软件均不享有任何所有权。

  (2) 若B公司购买本协议产品供内部使用,则A公司以下列条件授予B公司使用相关软件的权利﹕

  a) A公司授予B公司单独的、非独占的、不可转让的权利,即﹕(i)在单机上使用软件,或在经主机密码确认的单个授权装置上使用软件(软件原为该装置而置备)﹔(ii)仅为备份目的复制软件,以支持软件的授权使用﹔(iii) 仅为支持B公司对软件的授权使用而使用与复制有关用户手册。该权利仅适用于与协议产品有关的软件,并不延及A公司其他软件产品。

  b) 软件与用户手册受版权法保护。A公司和/或其许可方保留对软件和用户手册(包括A公司或其许可方作出的任何更改)的一切产权及所有权。除本协议有明确规定外,B公司不得对软件或用户手册或其复制件(无论全部或一部分)有下列行为:修改、翻译、解码、拆解、为竞争性分析目的而使用、进行反向设计,销售或创作衍生作品。软件及用户手册系A公司及其许可方的保密的、专有的知识产权。除本协议规定外,B公司不得向任何第三方再许可、转让或以其他方式披露软件或任何与软件及用户手册的运行、设计、性能或实施有关的且系A公司及其许可方保密的信息。但是,B公司可许可其顾问、分包商及代理人在B公司的设备上接触软件,条件是,该顾问、分包商及代理人同意按照本协议规定仅限于与协议产品有关而使用软件并且该顾问、分包商及代理人应事先签署保密协议保护专有信息,保密协议的条款与本协议规定的内容应至少一样严格。

  c) 软件使用权有效至被终止时为止。与A公司保密信息的使用与披露有关的限制性规定应继续有效。B公司可随时终止其软件使用权。若B公司未能遵守本条任何规定,其软件使用权将自动终止。一经终止,B公司应立即销毁或向A公司归还软件、用户手册及所有副本。若软件使用权仅系上述原因而终止,A公司对B公司不承担任何形式的损害赔偿责任。

  (3) 保修及其它服务包括A公司为B公司事先获得使用权的软件(“软件版本”)提供调整、修补及替代方法,并配套提供版本说明、用户手册或其它文件。经过上述调整,修补或替代的软件版本的使用权适用本条规定。

  (4) B公司可通过根据本协议规定发出订单的方法,为最终用户取得软件、软件版本及有关用户手册的使用权。最终用户使用软件及软件版本权利的限制性条件不应比本协议规定的条款条件宽松。B公司同意,针对其根据本协议采购的供最终用户使用的所有软件,B公司将与最终用户签订书面协议,形式同附件E。若一方获悉或认为最终用户违反软件使用权及保密协议规定,B公司须立即通知A公司,并行使软件使用权及保密协议中规定的权利及追诉权,对此,A公司可能发出指示或B公司作出选择,对保护软件及专利、版权或A公司及其供货商其他权利的专有性及保密性予以特别强调。

  (5) B公司不得许可最终用户以任何方式翻译、解码、拆解、为竞争性分析目的使用,或反向设计软件或有关用户手册。B公司同意,未经A公司事先书面许可,不会将软件或相关用户手册的任何部分翻译成或许可最终用户将其翻译成任何其它形式或外国文字。若最终用户改变或修改硬件或软件,B公司应立即采取适当行动制止该最终用户。关于向政府或公共机构提出建议或与之达成协议方面,B公司同意采取适当措施,并促使其最终用户采取适当措施,确保A公司及第三方受许可人对软件,特别是对自费开发的商用计算机软件的专有权,得到该政府或组织最大限度的保护。

  ARTICLE 10. SOFTWARE RIGHTS

  (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary inthis Agreement, neither Company B nor itscustomers shall obtain any rights of ownership in any software under thisAgreement.

  (2) In the event that CompanyB purchases any Products under this Agreement for its internal use, Company A grants Company Bthe right to use the associated software subject to the following terms andconditions:

  a) Company Agrants Company B a personal, nonexclusive,nontransferable right to: (i) use thesoftware either on a single computer or, on a single authorized deviceidentified by host ID, for which it was originally acquired; (ii) copy the software solely for backuppurposes in support of authorized use of the software; and (iii) use and copythe associated user manual solely in support of authorized use of the softwareby Company B. This right applies to the software associated with the Products only anddoes not extend to any other Company Asoftware products.

  b) The software and user manuals are protectedunder copyright laws. Company A and/or itslicensors retain all title and ownership in both the software and user manuals,including any revisions made by Company A orits licensors. Company B may not modify,translate, decompile, disassemble, use for any competitive analysis, reverseengineer, distribute or create derivative works from the software or usermanuals or any copy, in whole or in part, except as expressly provided in thisAgreement. The software and user manuals embody CompanyA’s and its licensors’ confidential and proprietary intellectualproperty. Except as set forth in thisAgreement, Company B shall not sublicense,assign or otherwise disclose to any third party the software, or anyinformation about the operation, design, performance, or implementation of thesoftware and user manuals which is confidential to CompanyA and its licensors; however Company Bmay grant permission to its consultants, subcontractors and agents to access tothe software at Company B’s facility providedthey have agreed to use the software only in connection with the Products inaccordance with the terms of this Agreement, provided any such consultants,subcontractors or agents have entered into a nondisclosure agreement protectingthe confidentiality of the Proprietary Information of CompanyA or its licensors with confidentiality provisions at least as stringentas those contained in this Agreement.

  c) This right to use the software is effectiveuntil terminated; those restrictions relating to use and disclosure of Company A's confidential information shall continuein effect. Company B may terminate its rightto use the software at any time. Theright to use the software will automatically terminate if Company B fails to comply with any of the terms andconditions of this Article. Upontermination in such cases, Company B willimmediately destroy or return to Company A thesoftware, user manuals, and all copies. Company Ais not liable to Company B for damages in anyform solely by these reasons of the termination of this right to use thesoftware.

  (3) Warranty and other services may include thedelivery of fixes, patches and workarounds to software which Company B was previously given a right to use(“software releases”), with accompanying release notes, user manuals or otherdocumentation. After the foregoingadjustments, the patches and the right to use the software versions apply tothis Article.

  (4) Company B mayobtain a right to use by end-users for software, software releases andassociated user manuals by placing P/Os under this Agreement. The terms of the end-user’s right to use forsuch software and software releases to which end-users are subject shall be noless restrictive than the terms and conditions which are included in thisArticle. CompanyB agrees that for all software which it procures under this Agreementfor use by end-users, Company B will enterinto a written agreement with the end-user in the form attached as Exhibit Ehereto. If a Party becomes aware or believes that an End User breaches theSoftware Right-to-Use and Confidentiality Agreement, CompanyB must promptly notify Company A andshall exercise such rights and recourses under the Software Right-to-Use andConfidentiality Agreement as Company A maydirect or as Company B otherwise may electwith particular emphasis on preserving the proprietary and confidential natureof the Software and any patent, copyright or other rights of Company A and its suppliers.

  (5) Company B maynot allow the end-user, to translate, decompile, disassemble, use for anycompetitive analysis, or reverse engineer the software or associated usermanuals, in any way. Company B agrees not to translate, or givepermission to end-users to translate any portion of the software or associateduser manuals into any other format or foreign language without the priorwritten permission from Nortel Networks. In the event that an end-user alters or modifies the hardware orsoftware, Company B shall promptly takeappropriate action against such end-user. In connection with any proposals made to, and agreements made with anygovernment or public entity, Company B agreesto take appropriate steps, and cause its End Users to take appropriate steps toensure that the proprietary rights of Company Aand third party licensees in the software receive the maximum protectionavailable from such entity for commercial computer software developed atprivate expense.

  第十三条 文档与版权通知

  (1) 在本协议期限内,A公司特此授予B公司无偿的、非独占性的权利——使用、复制、翻译和散发全部或部分文档以供内部使用及发放给B公司的最终用户。A公司许可B公司将文档翻译成中文。未经A公司书面许可,B公司没有其它与文档有关的权利。A公司拥有对所有的文档以及由此而派生出来的修改版本重新解释、翻译及引用的所有权、使用权和利益。

  (2) 若A公司因产品升级而更改和发布新的文档,A公司将为B公司提供所有的更改的文档,同时B公司将会享有与第13.1条的同样的权利。

  (3) 在B公司发放有关文档给予最终用户之前,B公司应负责确认文档所有中文版本翻译内容正确。A公司将有权审阅所有中文版本翻译。

  (4) B公司不得拆换或毁损任何原版技术资料、文档上的版权或限制性说明,所有由B公司或以B公司名义复制的技术资料或文档的版权标识应与原件标识一样,或按照下述表述:“A公司版权所有”。

  (5) 所有由B公司或以B公司名义制作的文档翻译文件的版权标识应与原件标识一样,或按照下述表述:“B公司及其授权人版权所有。”

  ARTICLE 13. DOCUMENTATIONAND COPYRIGHT NOTICES

  (1) For theterm of this Agreement, Company A hereby grants to Company B a non-exclusive,royalty-free right to use, copy, translate, and distribute all or portions ofDocumentation for internal use and distribution to Company B’s end-users. CompanyA givespermission to Company B to translate the Documentation into Chinese. CompanyB shall have noother rights in respect of the Documentation without prior written permissionof Company A. Company A owns the entire right, title and interest in and to all Documentation aswell as any and all derivatives, modifications, paraphrasing, translations andexcerpts thereof.

  (2) In the event Company A updates and/or releases any new Documentation dueto Product upgrade, Company A shall furnish to Company B all such changes and CompanyB shall havethe same right in connection with these changes as described in Article 13 (1).

  (3) Prior to distribution to CompanyB’s End Users, CompanyB shall beresponsible to ensure that the Chinese translation of the content of theDocumentation is correct and accurate. Company A will have the right toreview all the Chinese translation.

  (4) Company B shall not remove or destroy any copyright or restrictedrights notices affixed to any original media containing any technicalinformation or Documentation. All copies of technical information orDocumentation made by or on behalf of Company B shall either be labeled inthe same manner as on the original media or in a manner substantially similarto the following: Copyright Company A. All Rights Reserved.

  (5) All copies of translated Documentation made by or on behalf of CompanyB shall eitherbe labeled in the same manner as on the original media or in a mannersubstantially similar to the following: Copyright [year(s)] CompanyB and itslicensors. All Rights Reserved.

  五、关于商业秘密条款

  【律师解析】

  商业秘密包括技术信息和经营信息,在近距离合作时很容易被合作方获取,但权利方有时会较容易忽视对这类信息的保护。针对商业秘密,在合同设计或谈判时应充分考虑如下因素:

  



  【合同条款中英文实例】

  第二十一条 保密

  (1)“专有信息”包括:(a)书面形式的信息或资料,其为披露方或A公司的任何供应商的商业秘密,或披露方或A公司的任何供应商对上述信息或资料持有任何形式的知识产权,该权利有显著标识以表明其保密及专有性(例如,“秘密”、“专有”、“私有”、“保密”“只限内部使用”等等);(b)一般性的书面商业信息,该信息公众不易获得并且做有标识以表明其性质; (c) 与另一方任何现在的或将来的潜在业务和/或协议产品计划有关的书面信息,做有标识以表明其性质,并且该信息被本协议各方认为不属公有领域; (d) 软件。每一方在其口头向其它方提供其专有信息时,应于该专有信息被口头披露后X周内向其它方发出其为专有信息的书面通知,此类口头披露的信息即应被视为专有信息。在收到其它方书面形式并做有标识表明其性质的专有信息时,双方同意采取合理的行动保护该等信息并使其处于秘密状态,以防止其被披露给第三方,并将其只用于本协议允许的用途,且在按需告知的基础上向其雇员披露。

  (2)本协议期间内,B公司应在其设施办理必要的与业务有关的安全手续,以保护A公司的专有信息,包括但不限于,控制对B公司设施及设备的使用,位于建筑物或设备安装现场的雇员,承包方或其他人员应佩带安全标志,与雇员及有关人员签订保密协议,制定其他必要的安全标准及规程,以确保专有信息得到保护及保密。

  (3)本条下一方的义务自本协议期满或终止后X年内仍然有效。但对下列信息任何一方不承担保护或保密的义务:

  (a) 非由于接收方的过错成为公众公有或为整个行业公有;

  (b) 接收方以正当方式从第三方取得的不承担限制披露义务的信息;

  (c) 接收方的商业记录证明为其独立开发的信息;

  (d) 未以书面形式标明该信息系秘密的,专有的,私有的,保密的或仅供内部使用,或仅被口头披露而未按本条第1款规定在口头披露后的X周内予以书面通知的信息;

  (4) A公司及其供货商对下列信息保留专有权利:(i)所有与协议产品有关的设计、工程细节及其他数据,包括修改;(ii)全部或部分由A公司或其分包商在本协议工作中产生的原作品,计算机程序,调整,升级,发现,发明,专利,专有技术,及工艺;(iii)在上述工作中开发的所有协议产品。A公司专业服务的提供不得视为雇用工作,但应受本款约束。

  (5)B公司及最终用户应各自对自己的专有信息及保密信息的安全负责,采取必要的手段恢复丢失或更改的文档、数据或程序。

  ARTICLE 21. CONFIDENTIALITY

  (1)"ProprietaryInformation" includes, (a) information or data, in written form, which iseither a trade secret of the disclosing Party or any of Company A’s suppliers, or in which thedisclosing Party or any of Company A’s suppliers, holds any form ofintellectual property right, that are conspicuously marked to indicate itsconfidential or proprietary nature (e.g., “secret”, “proprietary”, “private”, “confidential”,“internal use only”, etc.); and (b) general business information, in written form,which is not readily available to the public and is marked to indicate itsnature; and (c) any information in written form regarding actual or potentialfuture business and/or product plans of the other Party, marked to indicate itsnature, which is not considered by the Parties to this Agreement to be in thepublic domain; and (d) software. EachParty, in the event it provides its Proprietary Information orally to the otherParty, shall send to the other Party a written notice of such ProprietaryInformation within Xweeks after it is disclosed orally, and such orally disclosed information shallbe deemed to be Proprietary Information. Each Party agrees, in the event itreceives Proprietary Information of the other Party in written form and markedto indicate its nature, to take all reasonable actions to protect and hold suchinformation in confidence in order to prevent its disclosure to third parties,to use such Proprietary Information only for those purposes contemplated underthis Agreement, and to disclose Proprietary Information only to its employeeson a need-to-know basis.

  (2) At all times during the term of the Agreement, CompanyB shall perform allreasonably required security procedures at its facilities and in connectionwith its business activities in order to protect the Proprietary Information ofNortel Networks, including but not limited to, controlled access to the CompanyB facilities and/orinstallations, use of security badges by its employees, contractors and otherswhile on the premises or installation sites, and confidentiality agreementswith its employees and contractors and such other security standards andprocedures as shall be reasonably necessary to ensure the protection and non-disclosureof Company A's Proprietary Information.

  (3) The obligations of each Partyunder this Article shall survive for X years after the expiration ortermination of this Agreement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, neither Partyshall be required to protect or hold in confidence any information which:

  a) is or becomes available to the public or toindustry without the fault of the recipient;

  b) is subsequently rightfully received by therecipient from a third party without obligation of restriction on further disclosure;

  c) is independently developed by the recipient as evidenced by its business records; or

  d) is not written or marked with a legendindicating that the same is secret, proprietary, private, confidential, orinternal use only, or is orally disclosed unless written notice is made withinX weeks as set forth in Article 21 (1) above.

  (4) Company A, on behalf of itself andits suppliers, reserves all proprietary rights in and to (i) all designs,engineering details, and other data pertaining to the Products, including allmodifications, (ii) all original works, computer programs, fixes, updates,discoveries, inventions, patents, know-how and techniques arising out of workdone wholly or in part by Company A or its subcontractors in connection withthe Agreement, and (iii) any and all products developed as a result of suchwork. The performance by Company A of professional services shall not be deemeda work-for-hire but shall instead be subject to this section.

  (5) Company B, its end-users are eachresponsible for the security of their own proprietary and confidentialinformation and for maintaining adequate procedures apart from the Products toreconstruct lost or altered files, data or programs.

  六、关于侵权索赔条款

  【律师解析】

  在产品+市场浅度合作类商业行为中,具有产品优势的一方对产品的绝对掌控,使得另一方有可能在产品面临第三方的知识产权侵权指控时非常被动;同时,具有市场优势的一方进行合作的最终企图往往是将产品自有化,所以也不可避免地存在对产品进行技术上的研究、改进、甚至自行集成新的产品等行为,而这也会给另一方带来面临知识产权侵权指控的风险。因此,针对潜在的知识产权侵权索赔风险,在合同设计或谈判时应充分考虑如下因素:


  


  【合同条款中英文实例】

  第二十二条 侵权索赔

  (1)若第三方声称B公司在协议产品方面侵犯了专利,版权或其他知识产权或由此提出索赔,A公司同意为B公司抗辩或与第三方和解,补偿和保护B公司免受上述侵权指控中的和解或终审判决可能产生的损害及费用,条件是:

  (a) B公司应立即将该索赔通知A公司;

  (b) A公司完全控制抗辩及和解谈判;

  (c) B公司不得自行对索赔进行承认或和解;

  (d) B公司应向A公司提供合理的协助以消除该种索赔;

  (e) B公司应只按A公司的书面指示行动,该种指示应被及时收到;

  (f) A公司有权根据自己的选择给予B公司参加和/或接管争议、和/或解决该种索赔的权利。

  (2)在出现第22.1 条所指的索赔时,A公司可不承担进一步的责任,而自负费用并根据自己的选择采取下列行动之一:

  (a) 从有权处置该项知识产权的个人或公司取得使用必要的知识产权的权利;

  (b) 替换或修改协议产品以使其不再侵权;

  (c) 向B公司提供不侵权的协议产品使B公司替换侵权协议产品;

  (d) 接受B公司退回的该种协议产品并向B公司提供相当于购买价格的信用额度,自发货日起按X年期、直线法折旧计算需支付的折旧费。

  (3)A公司对因下列原因造成的对知识产权的侵犯不负责任:

  (a) B公司对协议产品的修改或改进;

  (b) B公司将产品与非A公司的产品进行集成,除非在该集成中侵权是仅由A公司的产品造成的;

  (c) A公司之外的任何一方对任何协议产品做出修改;

  (d) B公司未按A公司的指示进行或请人进行改动、修改或更新;或

  (e) A公司遵守B公司或最终用户的规格、设计或指示。

  (4)在上述情况之外,B公司应赔偿A公司可能因采取与上述索赔有关的行动而遭受的任何损失、费用、支付、毁损、偿付或其它责任,包括但不限于律师费。

  ARTICLE 22. CLAIMSOF INFRINGEMENT

  (1) If a third party raises a claim ofan infringement or alleged infringement of any PRC patent, copyright or other intellectual propertyright against Company B in connection with the Products,Company A shall defend against or settle with such thirdparty, and indemnify and protect Company B from the damages and costs, if any,awarded in lawsuit directly attributable to such claim or any settlementthereof; provided that,

  a) CompanyB shall informCompanyAimmediately of such claim;

  b) CompanyA has solecontrol of such defense and all negotiations for any settlement or compromise;

  c) CompanyB shall not, of its own accord, admit or settle such claim;

  d) CompanyB shall provide reasonable assistance toCompany Ato ward off such claim;

  e) CompanyB shall act only in accordance with written instructions ofCompany A, which shall be received in a timely fashion; and

  f) CompanyA shallhave the right to give to Company B, atCompany A’s option, a right to participate inand/or take over disputes, and/or to settle such claim.

  (2) In case of a claim set forth inArticle 22 (1),CompanyA may,without any further liability and at its own cost and discretion, take one ofthe following:

  a) acquirethe right to use the necessary intellectual property right from the person orcompany entitled to dispose of such intellectual property right;

  b) replaceor modify the Products so as to become a non-infringing one;

  c) provideCompany B with non-infringing Products in order for Company B to replace theinfringing Products; or

  d) acceptthe return of such Products from Company B and grant Company B a creditof the purchase price or fee paid for such Product as depreciated on a X-year, straight-line basis fromship date.

  (3) Company A will have no liability in case the infringement ofan intellectual property right results from:

  a) modificationor enhancement made by Company B of the Products;

  b) combinationof the Products with non-Nortel Networks products by Company B unless theinfringement is solely attributable to the Products in such combination;

  c) anymodification of any Product by a party other thanCompany A;

  d) CompanyB’s failure to install or have installed changes, revisions or updates as instructedbyCompany A; or

  e) CompanyA’s compliance with Company B’s, orend-user’s specifications, designs or instructions.

  (4) In theexcepted cases stated above, Company B shall indemnify and holdCompany A harmless against any loss, cost, expense, damage,settlement or other liability, including, but not limited to, attorneys' fees,which may be incurred byCompanyA with respect to any action based on such a claim.

  综上,在一份可以有效降低风险的合同中,其架构的设计一定是全面的,其条款的设计一定是不厌其烦、细之又细的。总体而言,中国人都倾向于喜欢签署简单的合同,而根据律师的经验,大多数纠纷正是来源于概而述之导致的歧义。尤其是在进入一个不熟悉的市场时,企业应该将各种可能性考虑得更加充分,在设计合同文本或进行合同谈判时,对合同整体架构和条款所涉及的各项因素都应该考虑得更全面更细致。

  仝雪莹律师:


  


  业务专长:公司商事法律事务、知识产权业务

  教育程度:硕士

  工作语言:中文 英文

  仝雪莹律师为北京市两高律师事务所高级合伙人,北京市律师协会第十届公司法与企业法律风险管理专业委员会委员及第十届女律师联谊会委员。

  仝雪莹律师曾任职于中国石油天然气集团公司、中国普天北京首信股份有限公司、中信国检信息技术有限公司,具有丰富的大型企业工作经验以及大型商事非诉项目和诉讼争议解决经验,长期专注于处理公司商事法律事务及知识产权业务,擅长以实现客户商业利益最优化的视角为客户提供整体解决方案。

  仝雪莹律师具有经济技术学科及法学学科的多元化复合型知识结构,曾发表《中国石油天然气集团公司之中国油气资源国际投资环境评价研究》、《模糊数学在国际投资环境评价中的应用》、《关于项目担保在项目融资中所起作用的实例研究》、《对影响企业安全业绩因素的认识》、《企业商业秘密法律风险防范》、《商业秘密侵权案件中的相关证据问题》、《商业秘密侵权案件中被告方的应诉要点》、《实例谈:产品+市场浅度合作类商业行为的合同架构及知识产权保护条款设计和谈判中应关注的因素解析》等专业文章,并参与译著《石油会计—原则、程序及问题》、《国际石油公司财务管理》等专业著作。

  —— 完 ——

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